Looking At Nutritional Deficiencies Pre & Post Gastric Sleeve

Nutrient deficiencies before and after sleeve gastrectomy.


Obesity is associated with nutritional deficiencies. Bariatric surgery could worsen these deficiencies. Fewer nutritional deficiencies would be seen after sleeve gastrectomy compared to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but sleeve gastrectomy would also cause further deterioration of the deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of pre-operative nutrient deficiencies in sleeve gastrectomy patients and assess the evolution of the nutritional status during the first post-operative year.


Four hundred and seven sleeve gastrectomy patients were assigned to a standardized follow-up program. Data of interest were weight loss, pre-operative nutrient status and evolution of nutrient deficiencies during the first post-operative year. Deficiencies were supplemented when found.


Two hundred patients completed blood withdrawal pre-operatively and in the first post-operative year. pre-operatively, 5 % of the patients were anaemic, 7 % had low serum ferritin and 24 % had low folic acid. Hypovitaminosis D was present in 81 %. Vitamin A had excessive levels in 72 %. One year post-operatively, mean excess weight loss was 70 %. Anaemia was found in 6 %. Low-ferritin levels were found in 8 % of the patients. Folate deficiency decreased significantly and hypovitaminosis D was still found in 36 %.

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In this study, a considerable amount of patients suffered from a deficient micronutrient status pre-operatively. One year after surgery, micronutrient deficiencies persisted or were found de novo in a considerable amount of patients, despite significant weight loss and supplementation. Significant reductions were seen only for folate and vitamin D.

Source: Obes Surg. 2014 Oct;24(10):1639-46. doi: 10.1007/s11695-014-1225-y.

Authors: Van Rutte PW, Aarts EO, Smulders JF, Nienhuijs SW